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Structural Representations of Organic Compounds

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The structures of organic compounds are represented in several ways. The most important of these is the Lewis structure. However, if we were to write many compounds with their Lewis structure then definitely it would be very time consuming. Moreover, the bigger the size of the compound, the more painful writing its Lewis structure is. To overcome this problem, some other methods have been introduced.

Complete structural formulae

The Lewis structures can be simplified by representing the two-electron covalent bond by a dash. Such a structural formula focuses on the electrons involved in bond formation.

A single dash represents a single bond, a double dash represents a double bond and a triple dash represents a triple bond. Lone pairs of electrons on heteroatoms (e.g. oxygen, halogens etc) may or may not be shown.

Complete Structural Formulae

complete structural formula of ethane

Ethane

complete structural formula of ethene

Ethene

complete structural formula of ethyne

Ethyne

Condensed structural formulae

Complete structural formulae can be further abbreviated by omitting some or all the dashes representing covalent bonds.

Condensed Structural Formulae

condensed structural formula of ethane

Ethane

condensed structural formula of ethene

Ethene

condensed structural formula of ethyne

Ethyne

Identical repetitive units are put in parenthesis and subscripts are used to indicate their repetition. For example, CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 can be further condensed to CH3(CH2)4CH3. The role of parantheses is very important in condensed structural formulae. Study the following examples carefully :

Some other examples of condensed structural formulae

condensed structural formula example

2-Methylpropane

condensed structural formula example

Propan-2-ol

condensed structural formula example

Pentane

condensed structural formula example

3-Chloro-2-hydroxybutan-1-al

condensed structural formula example

But-3-en-2-one

Bond-line structural representation

In Bond-line structural representation, carbon and hydrogen atoms are not shown and the lines representing carbon-carbon bonds are drawn in a zig-zag fashion. Only heteroatoms are written in bond line representation.

Bond line Formulae

Butane

bondline formula of butane

Prop-2-en-1-ol

bond line formula example

The terminals in bond-line structures denote methyl (CH3) groups unless indicated otherwise by a functional group, while the line junctions denote carbon atoms bonded to appropriate number of hydrogens required to satisfy the valency of the carbon atoms.

Cyclic compounds are usually represented by bond line formulae :

Bond line Formulae

Cyclohexane

bond line formula example

Chlorocyclohexane

bond line formula example

Some other examples of bond-line formulae

bond line formula example of cyclic compounds

Cyclopropane

bond line formula example

Cyclobuta-1,3-diene

bond line formula example

Cyclopentyne

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